We will show you how to choose the training means (part 2/2)
How to choose training means, how to create and characterize them? The article introduces the subject of training measures. The topic is important, because for every athlete, every physically active person is a daily bread.
Information area of the training medium
Exercising a completely different sport discipline from the one in which we specialize often causes the activation of muscles that we have never trained. Or rather, we did not use them in such neuromuscular stimulation, intermuscular coordination. It turns out that even for a very fit athlete an activity such as mowing the grass with a scythe can be difficult and fatigue more than an unskilled farmer.
The presented division of training means into special, targeted and it comprehensively reflects the correlation of information transmitted to working muscles with the information that should be passed in the start-up activity. The most consistent with the start-up activity is information provided by special means. The most distant from them – versatile means. However, all of them should be included in a properly prepared plan of preparation for starting in competitions.
Periodization of the training plan
The state of the body’s full readiness to take part in the competition, the achievement of a specific result, and physical fitness is associated with the multiplicity of phenomena and adaptive mechanisms of the body for this purpose. The use of training means for comprehensive, targeted and special preparation ensures completeness of the necessary adaptation changes. It prevents the formation of weak links in physical fitness.
Adaptive effects of the body, and therefore any relatively permanent changes in the body caused by training stimuli, they require a large number of systematic trainings. Periodically developed adaptive changes become the foundation of the next ones. In a word, training measures should be laid out over a long period of time, in order to fulfill their role and work out results.
The basic training plan is the annual plan. It is divided into smaller periods, so-called macrocycles, mesocycles (about monthly plans), microcycles (plans about a week). It is also possible to distinguish between preparatory, targeted and start-up periods.
Arrangement of training measures in the annual plan
Comprehensive means of influence should be in the initial training period, also in the transitional period between the implementation of subsequent annual plans. As we approach the period of the planned starting form, the share of comprehensive means should decrease in favor of targeted and special.
Measures directed as closer to the starting effort should reach their culmination in the non-start time or start time. In the period of planned starts, special preparation means should prevail in training. This does not mean that we completely give up targeted or versatile measures. They simply take less time in training, their share in the total amount of funds used is smaller.
With the advancement of the competition and subsequent years of training, the number of versatile means in the whole year of training is decreasing, but it should never fall to zero.
Energy area of training means
Training measures can be selected, classified, characterized according to the criterion of their information. We can determine their number, names, group exercises in exercise complexes, determine their place in the calendar of our training process. However, the same measures, e.g. targeted interaction, can be performed in a variety of ways, involving different systems to secure energy effort.
An example of a boxer who performs various types of throws with a heavy ball imitating strokes. It can do this with little or no intensity. It can throw without a break, over and over again, or give a big break between throws. Maybe during the exercise, work on legs, throwing a heavier ball. His effort may vary, although he makes the same throws structurally and informatively.
We can characterize the training measures from the energy systems most involved in the effort. The method of organizing the preparation for takeoffs in the annual plan will be similar to that described for measures of versatile, targeted and special preparation.
How to plan the development of efficiency of energy systems?
First, we will have to characterize the share of energy systems in the target effort to which we are preparing. Then spread out the next stimuli in time to get the effects of exercise that will affect the adaptive effects. It means the development of some energy systems usually at the expense of others.
Human energy systems
In the simplest terms, we have three energy systems. Oxygen, mixed (oxygen-free) and anaerobic. Without penetrating their characteristics, they rely on a smaller or larger proportion of oxygen in the production of energy necessary for muscle work.
The more intense the effort provokes the body’s big reactions in a short time, the greater the share of the anaerobic energy production system. The less intense and long-time effort, the more important the oxygen system becomes.
Breakdown of training means due to the energy system
Almost every exercise can be done in a way that will involve various energy systems. You can do them slowly or quickly with long or short breaks, with small or large number of repetitions or series.
The most readable indicators of the intensity of effort and the energy system involved are the heart rate, as a reaction of the system to load, and time of effort. Taking into account these parameters, 6 types of training means were distinguished.
The first are maintenance measures, the next are aerobic, mixed, anaerobic, acid-free, anaerobic, non-lactic, and additionally, anabolic metabolism.
To know what drug you use, you need to know your body
It is in what zone of energy transformation your effort takes place, and thus in order to know what training means you use – you need to know when you are under anaerobic and when oxygen changes.
In order to determine this limit, an own anaerobic transformation threshold should be set. In the simplest terms, the heart rate at which your body derives energy from anaerobic transitions. When such a threshold is set, zones of the heartbeat may be determined that affect specific energy systems. By controlling heart rate indicators during exercise, you can characterize the training center.
The characteristics of the training measures can be made on the basis of heart monitoring using sport-testers, lactic acid concentration, but also on the basis of subjective feelings of effort, observation of breath.
Training measures – the daily bread of the trainer
Training measures are the daily bread of a person involved in training. Just as a human becomes what he feeds his body and mind, so an athlete achieves physical fitness depending on the applied training measures. Therefore, training measures should be carefully learned and selected.
The easiest way to describe the information measures is comprehensive, targeted and special, as well as in the energy field for developing specific systems. Lack of sufficient comprehensive impact may lead to weak links in preparation.Posted on: November 14, 2018