Micro and macronutrients part 1/2


Minerals due to the body’s needs are divided into two groups: macroelements and microelements (trace elements). Macroelements are elements whose daily demand exceeds 100 mg. The daily requirement for micronutrients is not more than 100 mg. 


Here you can find vitamins and minerals – CLICK


The macroelements belong to 

  • Calcium 
  • Chlorine 
  • Magnesium 
  • Phosphorus
  • Potassium 
  • Sodium 


Trace elements or microelements belong to 

  • Iron 
  • Zinc 
  • Copper 
  • Manganese 
  • molybdenum 
  • Iodine 
  • Fluorine 
  • Chrome 
  • Selenium 




Calcium is part of the bone and enamel building material. Calcium is constantly subject to changes involving incorporation into bone and enamel and resorption. It plays a role in the conduction of nerve impulses, the mechanism of muscle contraction, permeability of cell membranes, in the regulation of the blood coagulation process, the regulation of heart rhythm and the absorption of vitamin B12, affects the control of blood pressure. The correct concentration of calcium reduces the risk of heart disease, strokes, colorectal cancer and kidney stones, is part of many enzymes. 


Cheese, cheese, white, milk, sardines, watercress, eggs, cabbage, meat, potatoes, beets, legumes, nuts. 


Calcium is expressed in food tables in milligrams of mg. 

Calcium makes up about 2% of the body weight of an adult; 99% of this amount is contained in bones and teeth, 

The degree of calcium absorption depends on the composition of food, fiber content, pH in the small intestine (better absorption in acid reaction), the rate of nutrient displacement in the intestine, the type of compound in which calcium occurs and the ratio of calcium to phosphorus. Very good conditions for absorption occur when calcium gets into the protein and lactose, and the presence of vitamin D is also important. Negatively affect the absorption of phytic acid, oxalic acid, 

The correct calcium intake in childhood and adolescence ensures proper ossification and calcification of the skeleton and minimizes the risk of osteoporosis at a later age. 

Recommended dietary standards for calcium for various groups of the population * 

Population groups – Calcium – Safe dose mg / day 


Men 19-30 years 1000 2500 

Men 31-50 years 1000 2,500 


Women 19-30 years 1000 2,500 

Women 31-50 years 1000 2,500 




It is the main component of secretions and excreta, it is part of digestive juices in the digestive tract (gastric juice and saliva), participates in the regulation of water management in the body and acid-base balance. 


Salt, cheese, sausages, food produced with the participation of salt. 


Chlorine is expressed in food tables in milligrams mg or grams g. 

Recommended dietary standards for chlorine for different population groups * 

Population groups – Chlorine – Safe dose g / day 


Men 19-30 years 2.3 3.6 

Men 31-50 years 2.3 3.6 


Women 19-30 years 2.3 3.6 

Women 31-50 years 2.3 3.6 


* (according to the Dietary Reference Intakes set by the National Academy of Sciences, Food and Nutrition Board, USA) 

Interesting facts 

During periods of prolonged sweating, chronic diarrhea, vomiting and when using diuretics, chlorine is lost from the body along with liquids, 

The body’s need for chlorine from food and its losses from the body are similar to sodium, so the recommendations for both elements are the same. 




Magnesium participates in the construction of bones and teeth, has a part in the process of seeing, fulfills an important role in the transmission of information between muscles and nerves, participates in metabolism, in the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins, in thermoregulation, lipid metabolism, inhibits blood clotting (protects against clots in the vessels, clots in the heart – protection against heart attack), is an activator of some enzymes. 


Soy flour, barley groats, nuts, buckwheat, chocolate, cocoa, pumpkin seeds, beans, peas, corn, lentils, spinach, whole grain flour. 


Magnesium is expressed in the diet tables in milligrams of mg. In order to avoid the possibility of overdose, the source of this mineral should be food. 

Recommended dietary standards for Magnesium for various groups of the population * 

Population groups – Magnesium – Recommended dietary standards mg / day 


Men 19-30 years old 400 

Men 31-50 years 420 


Women 19-30 years 310 

Women 31-50 years 320 


* (according to the Dietary Reference Intakes set by the National Academy of Sciences, Food and Nutrition Board, USA) 

Interesting facts 

Magnesium has a regulatory role in controlling blood pressure, thus affecting hypertension. Magnesium deficiency may be a risk factor in the occurrence of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis, 

The absorption of magnesium improves vitamin D, the hormone of the parathyroid gland, aggravates calcium, phosphorus, alcohol, protein-rich foods, deficiency of vitamins B1 and B6, 

Magnesium deficiency is manifested by a lack of coordination, fatigue with cardiac disorders, 

One chocolate bar provides about 20% of the daily adult’s requirement for magnesium. 




Ingredient of bones, teeth, high energy compounds, nucleic acids, cephalin, lecithin, cell membranes and blood. He participates in the construction and maintenance of the proper condition of teeth and bones; in the regulation of acid-base balance, It plays a very large role in anabolic and catabolic processes, it participates in the burning of glucose. 


Dairy products, meat, fish, liver, eggs, cheese, peas, pumpkin seeds, beans, potatoes, whole-grain cereals, carrots. 


Phosphorus is expressed in the diet tables in milligrams of mg. 

Recommended dietary standards for Phosphorus for different population groups * 

Population groups-Phosphorus-Recommended dietary standards mg / day 


Men 19-30 years 700 4000 

Men 31-50 years 700 4000 


Women 19-30 years 700,000 

Women 31-50 years 700 4000 


* (according to the Dietary Reference Intakes set by the National Academy of Sciences, Food and Nutrition Board, USA) 

Interesting facts 

The management of phosphorus in the body is inherently related to the economy of calcium, therefore it is subject to the control of the same factors as it, 

Phosphorus deficiencies are unlikely to occur. However, if they appear, they cause rickets in children and osteomalacia (osteomalacia) in adults, 

The best proportion of calcium consumed to phosphorus is 1.81, which corresponds to the proportion of these two minerals in human milk. Such a proportion will certainly protect our body against bone loss. 


You can read also: Why magnesium is so important in daily supplementation?

Posted on: February 21, 2019

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