Micro and macronutrients 2/2

nutrient-additives-505124_640

Potassium  

Functions 

Potassium is directly bound to sodium and ensures the proper water management of the body, the main intracellular fluid cation, enzyme component, occurs in digestive juices, regulates water management (cell volume, intracellular osmotic pressure), affects the acid-base balance, ensures the proper functioning of the nerves and muscle, increases the permeability of cell membranes (calcium antagonist), increases the activity of secretory glands. 

Sources 

Bananas, apricots, carrots, potatoes, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, avocados, dates, nuts, spinach.

Request 

Potassium is expressed in the diet tables in milligrams mg or grams g. For this mineral, due to lack of data, the safe maximum dose with no risk of side effects has not been determined, therefore food should be the source of this component in order not to overdose. 

Recommended dietary standards for Potassium for various groups of the population * 

Population groups-Potas-Recommended dietetic standards g / day 

 

Men 19-30 years old 4.7 

Men 31-50 years 4.7 

 

Women 19-30 years old 4.7 

Women 31-50 years 4.7 

 

* (according to the Dietary Reference Intakes set by the National Academy of Sciences, Food and Nutrition Board, USA) 

Interesting facts 

. potassium is involved in the regulation (lowering) of blood pressure and thus may reduce the risk of heart attack and heart disease, 

. is a sodium antagonist, 

. is an essential ingredient in maintaining healthy bones, promotes the proper use of calcium and reduces its losses in the urine. 

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Sodium 

Functions 

It is the basic component of body fluids (digestive juices, blood, lymph, interstitial fluid), it participates in the maintenance of water balance in the body and acid-base balance. It affects the proper functioning of the nerves and muscles, a component of enzymes. 

Sources 

Salt, food produced with the participation of sodium. 

Request 

Sodium is expressed in nutritional tables in milligrams mg or grams g. 

Recommended dietary standards for sodium for various groups of the population * 

Population groups-Sod-Recommended dietary standards g / day 

 

Men 19-30 years 1.5 2.3 

Men 31-50 years 1.5 2.3 

 

Women 19-30 years 1.5 2.3 

Women 31-50 years 1.5 2.3 

 

* (according to the Dietary Reference Intakes set by the National Academy of Sciences, Food and Nutrition Board, USA) 

Interesting facts 

sodium is a potassium antagonist, 

sodium, being present in excess, binds water in the body leading to hypertension, edema and even conduction, 

39% is in table salt, i.e. one teaspoon of tea contains about 2,000 mg of sodium, 

sometimes, in exceptional cases, a man will suffer from sodium deficiency. An example of this are marathon runners who lose this element along with sweat and those who abuse laxatives or drainage. 

 

Iron  

Functions 

The most important component of red blood pigment (hemoglobin), also necessary in the process of formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow, iron binds carbon dioxide in hemoglobin and transports it to the lungs, where it is removed. This element is also a component of many enzymes and proteins involved in the metabolism of the body. It takes part in the synthesis of DNA, necessary for the proper structure of the skin, hair, nails, for the proper functioning of the immune system. 

Sources 

Meat, liver, fish, egg yolk, cottage cheese, nuts, milk, legumes, broccoli, spinach, shrimps. 

Request 

Iron is expressed in food tables in milligrams of mg. 

Recommended dietary standards for iron for various groups of the population * 

Population groups – Iron-Recommended dietary standards mg / day 

 

Men 19-30 years 8 45 

Men 31-50 years 8 45 

 

Women 19-30 18 18 

Women 31-50 18 18 

 

* (according to the Dietary Reference Intakes set by the National Academy of Sciences, Food and Nutrition Board, USA) 

Interesting facts 

iron from animal products is better absorbed and used by the body than iron from plant products, 

iron deficiency is the most common deficiency in the world. The most exposed to iron deficiency are infants, children in the period of growth and women during pregnancy and feeding, 

even a small iron deficiency may show a decrease in physical fitness and constantly damage psychomotor activities, 

in the last 3 months of pregnancy the fetus deposits in the liver iron stores, which are up to 5 times higher than in adults. 

 

Zinc 

Functions 

It is necessary for the synthesis of DNA and RNA, proteins, insulin and semen, necessary for the proper functioning of the immune system and for the activation of more than 80 enzymes. It is involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, proteins and alcohol. Needed in the process of protection against free radicals, taste and smell, it affects the appearance of hair and nails. 

Sources 

Lean meat, skim milk, egg yolk, wholemeal flour, nuts, sea foods.

Request 

Zinc is expressed in food tables in milligrams of mg. 

Recommended dietary standards for Zinc for different population groups * 

Population groups-Zinc-Recommended dietary standards mg / day Safe maximum dose without side-effects risk 

mg / day 

 

Men 19-30 years 11 40 

Men 31-50 years 11 40 

 

Women 19-30 years 8 40 

Women 31-50 years 8 40 

 

* (according to the Dietary Reference Intakes set by the National Academy of Sciences, Food and Nutrition Board, USA) 

Interesting facts 

zinc is associated with the functioning of growth hormone and bone protein synthesis, 

the first symptom of zinc overdose is vomiting, 

too low supply of zinc during childhood causes abnormal development of the young organism, decreased appetite, weakening of the taste of acute taste and immune response of the body, 

eating zinc-rich food does not pose a threat to its overdose because zinc does not accumulate in the tissues and its excess is excreted from the body, 

zinc deficiency may cause phytic acid, some fiber-rich foods may also bind zinc in the gastrointestinal tract and interfere with its absorption. 

 

Copper 

Functions 

Copper is essential for the proper functioning of the body. It is involved in the production of red blood cells, in the formation of bones and collagen, in normal wound healing, in the absorption and transport of iron, in the metabolism of fatty acids and in the formation of RNA, is a component of some enzymes, plays a role in the metabolic processes of the central nervous system and transformation of dyes . 

Sources 

Veal, nuts, legumes, cereals, poultry, liver, mussels, fish, buckwheat, egg yolks. 

Request 

Copper is expressed in the nutrition tables in micrograms μg. 

Recommended dietary standards for copper for different population groups * 

Population groups-Copper-Recommended dietary standards μg / day Safe maximum dose without any risk of side effects 

μg / day 

 

Men 19-30 years 900 10000 

Men 31-50 years 900 10000 

 

Women 19-30 years 900 10000 

Women 31-50 years 900 10000 

 

* (according to the Dietary Reference Intakes set by the National Academy of Sciences, Food and Nutrition Board, USA) 

Interesting facts 

copper is a part of superoxide dismutase, an enzyme which neutralizes free radicals (carcinogens and enhances atherosclerotic processes), 

copper in the body is 90% bound to the protein – ceruloplasmin, 

if a copper pot is used to cook red cabbage, beets, the red pigment contained in these vegetables will change the color of the dish into a bluish color. 

 

Manganese 

Functions 

Manganese is an element necessary in trace amounts for proper functioning. It takes part in the construction of enzymes that metabolize glucose and fatty acids, is a structural element of bone and skin. Manganese is very important in the processes of reproduction and the proper functioning of the central nervous system. 

Sources 

Nuts, tea, whole grain flour, green vegetables, peas, beets, beans, spinach. 

Request 

Manganese is expressed in the diet tables in milligrams of mg. 

Recommended dietary standards for Manganese for various groups of the population * 

Population groups-Manganese-Recommended dietary standards mg / day Safe maximum dose without side-effects risk 

mg / day 

 

Men 19-30 years 2.3 11 

Men 31-50 years 2.3 11 

 

Women 19-30 years 1.8 11 

Women 31-50 years 1.8 11 

 

 

* (according to the Dietary Reference Intakes set by the National Academy of Sciences, Food and Nutrition Board, USA) 

Interesting facts 

sometimes, in people abusing preparations containing manganese and in people who drink water with a high content of manganese, this component may be overdosed. It leads to dementia, schizophrenia, deepening Parkinson’s disease, 

manganese deficiency causes delays in physical development, skeletal defects, decreased fertility and probably epilepsy. 

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You can read also: ZMA and microelements

Posted on: February 21, 2019

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