Characteristics of groups of food products
Only foods that are varied in terms of products can provide the body with the necessary nutrients. To compose them appropriately, you need to know the nutritional values of the different types of food.
The nutritional characteristics of food products facilitate their division into groups. The most general is the division into animal and vegetable products. Usually more detailed divisions are used.
In one group there are food products with a similar quality composition (they contain similar nutrients), but with a different quantitative composition.
The most commonly used is the division into the following 12 groups
I Grain products.
II Milk and dairy products.
IV Meat, fish and their preserves.
V Maslo and cream
VI Other fats.
VIII. Vegetables and fruits containing a lot of vitamin C.
IX Vegetables and fruits containing a lot of carotenoids.
X Other vegetables and fruits.
XI Dry seeds of legumes.
XII Sugar and sweetness.
* It includes Maka, cereal, pasta, bread, bread, rolls, flakes, rice and noodles.
* These products are rich in sugars composed mainly of starch and fiber therefore it plays the energy role
* Protein is from 5-10% but it is a defective protein.
* These products are an important source of minerals. They supply iron, magnesium, calcium, potassium, phosphorus as well as zinc and copper. However, they are not easily absorbed, and this is due to the presence of fiber and phytic acid.
* Cereals are rich in B vitamins (mainly B, B and PP)
* Dark (wholemeal) poppy seed products are richer in vitamins, minerals and fiber
Milk and milk products.
* It includes milk, cheese (curd, rennet), fermented milk drinks – kefirs, yoghurts, whey, buttermilk.
* These products have a high nutritional value because they contain high-value and easily digestible proteins.
* Fat in milk occurs in the form of emulsion, therefore it is slightly digestible.
* Sugar in milk is lactose.
* A rich source of calcium and phosphorus.
* They are rich in vitamins. It is a basic source of vitamins / b, it also contains other vitamins such as B, B and PP.
* In rennet cheese and fermented beverages, there is also vitamin B produced by the bacteria used for fermentation.
* Eggs belong to the most versatile food products in terms of nutrient content.
* They are not high-calorie products, they provide an average of 130kcal / 100g ~ 2 eggs
* Egg protein has a very high biological value. It is a very well absorbed protein.
* Fat found in egg yolk contains a lot of lecithin, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol.
* Eggs, mainly yolk are a good source of iron, phosphorus, calcium and sulfur
* The high nutritional value of eggs is also determined by the obliteration of significant amounts of vitamins soluble in fats (A and D) and B vitamins, mainly B.
Meat, fish and their preserves
* Belongs to her
-Meat of slaughter animals (pigs)
-Food (chickens, turkeys, ducks, gesie)
* They are a good source of full-bodyweight protein (the exception of the arterial cartilage and the membrane eg gelatin)
* An important source of B vitamins, especially vitamins B and PP.
* They are a rich source of iron with very high bioavailability, zinc and copper
-The beasts of slaughter contain a lot of cholesterol.
-Ryb are valuable because they contain EFAs
Butter and cream
* Butter and cream were separated from the group of fats from a different role in nutrition. The fat in butter is easily digestible and easily digested.
* The source of vitamins carotene and D.
* It contains large amounts of cholesterol.
* Butter is essential in feeding children, adolescents and pregnant women due to vitamin A.
* Sweet cream 12%, 18%, 30%.
* Sour cream 12%, 18%.
* All fats other than butter belong to them. Margarine, oils, fish oil, lard, fat.
*Source of energy
* Animal fats contain many Tl acids. Saturated and cholesterol.
* Vegetable oils, on the other hand, contain EFAs, they do not have cholesterol.
* Oils contain vitamin E and margarine A and D added during production.
* They were singled out as a separate group due to widespreadness and cheapness.
* The main ingredient is starch
* Wholemeal potato protein is of good quality.
* The main minerals are potassium and magnesium.
* Potatoes are a very important source of vitamin C, vitamins from group B and K
* They have low energy value.
Vegetables and fruits containing large amounts of vitamin C
* Cruciferous vegetables
* Peppers, tomatoes.
– Red currants
-Strawberries, wild strawberries
-Orange, Grapefruit, Lemon.
Vegetables and fruits rich in carotenoids
Other vegetables and fruits
Dry seeds of legumes
* So the seeds of beans, peas, lentils salt.
* Their protein has the highest nutritional value among vegetable proteins.
* Minerals phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, iron, and zinc.
* There is a large amount of vitamins from group B.
Sugar and confectionery
* These include sugar, candies, chocolate, honey.
* They have very high energy values of 300-500kcal / 100g.
* They are used because of their taste and not their nutritional value.
* Chocolate enriches meals with magnesium and B vitamins
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