Amino acids – action, dosage, opinions [part 2/2]


Amino acids are an essential element of every body. These are tiny “building blocks” that build every protein. Each of them has a slightly different role. Athletes often use amino acid supplements to increase the exercise capacity of the body. See the benefits of using these natural nutrients.


Methionine participates in the division and use of fats, which in turn may affect the higher level of testosterone. It eliminates excess fat from the bloodstream. It is crucial in the process of digestion and removal of heavy metals from the stomach and liver. It is a good antioxidant, it neutralizes free radicals and positively affects memory.

Methionine is a precursor to cysteine, which is an amino acid that produces glutathione for liver cleansing. It is also one of the three amino acids that make up creatine – the main ingredient in energy production and muscle growth.


Benefits for people exercising in the gym – affects the metabolism of fats, better digestion and has antioxidant properties

Dose – approx. 12 mg for 1 kg of body weight. It is worth considering ZMA supplementation because it will give more benefits than the methionine itself

Overdose – missing

Source – meat, fish, beans, eggs, garlic, lentils, onion, yogurt and seeds



BCAA branched amino acids are the most important for bodybuilders. They are the 3 most important amino acids for the production, maintenance and regeneration of muscles. All 3 have a strong synergistic effect. Using only l-valine or isoleucine will have little anabolic activity. However, intake of both in appropriate doses will strengthen the effect of the most important of them – leucine.

It is believed that the 211 ratio (leucine-valine-isoleucine) brings the best results. BCAA is used in medicine for the treatment of headaches, dizziness, fatigue and even depression.

It is also good to use BCAA together with the vitamin complex. B.bcaa-powder-500g-235x355




Leucine is the strongest of the BCAA amino acids. It is responsible for the regulation of blood sugar levels and the growth and repair of tissues such as skin, bones and, of course, skeletal muscles.

It is a potent enhancer for growth hormone (HGH). It helps in the treatment of wounds, energy regulation and prevents the breakdown of muscle tissue.


Benefits for people exercising at the gym – leucine is one of the strongest natural anabolics in the world

Dose – approx. 16 mg for 1 kg of body weight

Overdose – missing

Source – It occurs in almost all sources of protein, brown rice, beans, nuts and wheat.



It has a very similar effect to leucine in practically every respect. Isoleucine supports muscle regeneration, regulates blood sugar levels, stimulates the release of growth hormone.

It helps in the formation of hemoglobin and is strongly associated with blood coagulation.


The benefits for people exercising in the gym – the same as in the case of lecuin, is an important component of BCAA

Dose – approx. 10-12 mg for 1 kg of body weight

Overdose – missing

Source – chicken, cashews, fish, almonds, eggs, lentils, liver, meat



Valine helps in the repair of muscle tissues, as BCAA is assigned. In addition, it maintains the balance of nitrogen and the use of glucose.


Benefits for people exercising in the gym – creates BCAA

Dose – approx. 16 mg for 1 kg of body weight

Overdose – missing

Source – Dairy products, meat, cereals, mushrooms, soybeans, peanuts.



Threonine is an essential amino acid that is not produced by the body. Its main sources are dairy and meat. It occurs in the heart, skeletal muscle, nervous tissue and the central nervous system.

Threonine is used to create the 2 most important binders, i.e. collagen and elastin. It also plays an important role in maintaining the protein balance.

Threonine is involved in liver function and maintenance of the immune system through participation in antibody production and thymus growth and activity.

However, the biggest advantage of threonine is that it allows better absorption of other nutrients, so threonine-containing protein sources are better absorbed than others.


Benefits for people exercising in the gym – protein absorption, muscle maintenance and health is important

Dose – approx. 8 mg for 1 kg of body weight

Overdose – missing

Source – meat, dairy products and eggs.

The most important endogenous amino acids

Endogenous amino acids are produced by the body only when needed. They are not as ubiquitous in food as exogenous amino acids. Therefore, supplementing your diet with these amino acids can bring many benefits. Especially in situations when their supplies in the body are low or have been absorbed for less significant purposes.

Below we will discuss the most important endogenous amino acids



Glutamine is an essential amino acid that is found in the body in a very large amount. It can be up to 60% of the entire amino acid pool.

Glutamine can positively affect memory and concentration. In the brain it is transformed into glutamic acid, which is very important for the proper functioning of the brain. It also increases the level of gamma-aminobutyric acid (ie popular GABA). It also affects the synthesis of muscle tissues.

To increase muscle mass, we need nitrogen. However, its too high level can cause ammonia to accumulate in the brain. Glutamine helps to get rid of it by joining nitrogen and converting it into glutamic acid, and then it gets rid of it from the body. It is also one of the main substances building our genetic code.

It occurs in many strands of DNA and RNA more often than other amino acids. One of the most important functions that it meets is balancing the level of acids in the body, thanks to which it reduces the amount of lactic acid.

However, glutamine has a disadvantage. It is used to produce energy more often than simple carbohydrates. It is one of the main fuels for the intestines and a good source of energy for the whole organism. There is therefore a chance that glutamine will not even be used for the purposes for which you use it.

So why supplement with glutamine? During periods of weight reduction, when we lower the level of carbohydrates consumed, there is a risk that the body will use heavily built muscles as a fuel. Here, glutamine comes in handy, which is the building block for muscle tissues.


Benefits for people exercising in the gym – maintaining muscle mass and providing an alternative source of energy during a period of low glucose supply

Dose – 5 – 10 g

Overdose – Dangerous only for people with liver and kidney failure

Source – large amounts in all high protein foods.



Recently, arginine has become a very popular topic. It is added to many supplements because it affects the nitrogen economy. And as we know, nitrogen plays a very important role in the synthesis of muscle proteins.

Arginine strengthens the immune system and stimulates the activity of the thymus, which makes it an excellent supplement for people with health problems, eg for people returning from an injury or HIV.

It also affects the release of insulin from the pancreas and is the main stimulator of growth hormone production from the anterior pituitary.

Arginine is also used as an effective way to improve the sexual condition of men and as a cure for infertility.

But above all it affects the growth of muscle mass while limiting the deposition of fat, by influencing its metabolism and its continuous use. It is the key to weight control.


Benefits for people exercising in the gym – increasing the level of nitrogen, strengthening the immune system, affects the hormonal balance and improving sexual ability, affects the metabolism of fats

Dose – no specific dose, because no pure form is produced, is an addition in other supplements

Overdose – weakness, diarrhea, nausea and loss of immunity to viruses

Source – Whole grains, nuts and seeds, rice, chocolate, raisins, soy



Carnitine is quite popular, although the truth is that it is not an amino acid at all. It has been included in this group due to its structural similarity. Occurs in 4 forms

1) D-carnitine

2) DL-carnitine

3) L-carnitine

4) Acetyl L-carnitine

Only the last two forms can be useful for people exercising at the gym.

If there is enough thiamine in the body (vitamin B1) and pyridoxine (vitamin B6), methionine and lysine can form carnitine. However, unlike other amino acids, it does not take part in protein synthesis.

Instead, carnitine is used to transport long-chain fatty acids. It is essential that fatty acids can enter and be removed from the cells. In addition, it removes short-chain organic acids from the mitochondria to release the mitochondrial coenzyme.

These features have made carnitine to be used to reduce body fat and increase energy.

Carnitine also has important health properties because it prevents the accumulation of fatty acids in the heart, liver and muscles. Additionally, it improves the anti-oxidative effect of vitamin C and E.

Carnitine is the only endogenous amino acid for which we should consider long-term supplementation. It can be very helpful for people who want to maintain a slim figure throughout the year.


Benefits for people exercising in the gym – increases the level of ATP, removes fat accumulated around the muscles

Dose – from 20 to 200 mg depending on body weight

Overdose – diarrhea

Source – Fish, poultry, red meat and milk. It does not occur in vegetables



L-cysteine is an endogenous amino acid containing sulfur, which makes it a good anti-oxidant. It is closely related to cystine, which consists of 2 molecules of cysteine ??joined together.

Cysteine is very unstable and is almost immediately transformed into a cystine. However, this is not a problem, because when the body needs it, it is easily re-turned into a cysteine. It helps to maintain healthy skin, helps detoxify the body and takes part in the production of collagen.


Cysteine forms taurine, which is a component of glutathione. Glutathion, in turn, protects the brain and liver from damage caused by drugs, alcohol and other substances considered harmful.

In addition, cysteine ??is crucial for the metabolism of other very useful things for a bodybuilder, including participation in the formation of coenzyme A, heparin and vitamin. B.


Benefits for people exercising in the gym – the metabolism of B vitamins, detoxification, enhances the action of insulin.

Dose – 200-300 mg

Overdose – only in people with diabetes

Source – Poultry, wheat, broccoli, eggs, garlic, onions, peppers



HMB, i.e. beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate.

HMB plays a role in muscle synthesis by increasing the rate of protein utilization. This leads to less fat deposition and contributes to the preservation of muscle mass.

HMB not only improves the use of free amino acids in the body, but also minimizes the breakdown of proteins. While maintaining the integrity and strength of the cell membrane, it does not allow the protein stored in the cell to be used for other purposes.

It is estimated that our body produces 1 g HMB a day. Additional supplementation is therefore indicated.

At the stage of the diet, HMB can act as a “rescuer”. By protecting muscle proteins, metabolizing fat and increasing the use of free amino acids, it can help achieve the assumed goals faster.


Benefits for people exercising in the gym – prevents muscle losses and fat accumulation

Dose – from 2.5 to 6 g per day

Overdose – unknown

Source – trace amounts in food, found in catfish and grapefruit


The above list is a key combination of the most popular amino acids used in bodybuilding. I hope that after reading this article your knowledge will be much greater.

Posted on: October 24, 2018

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