What fats to choose for frying and baking?
Not every fat tolerates high temperatures well and is suitable for frying and baking.To choose the right one, you need to pay attention to its smoking temperature and fatty acid composition.High temperatures during frying cause the breakdown of fats and the formation of toxic compounds for health, therefore frying is best to choose fats with a high content of saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids, such as clarified butter, rapeseed oil, refined olive oil or rice oil.
Frying is a very popular type of thermal processing in Poland.In order not to harm your health, you should choose the right amount of fat to the method and time of frying – it is important whether you fry the dish for a short time, for example preparing vegetables or scrambled eggs or for a long time in deep fat, where the dish is partially or completely submerged.During thermal processing at too high a temperature, the fat breaks down into free fatty acids and glycerol, which are transformed into mutagenic aldehydes, ketones and acrolein with mutagenic effects.When the fried product contains proteins and carbohydrates, carcinogenic acrylamide is produced.The unfavorable changes occurring in fat are evidenced by the appearance of smoke and a characteristic smell, which is associated with low-quality bar food.Oils during frying oxidize, which also adversely affects health, promotes atherosclerosis and inhibits the activity of digestive enzymes.
What affects the usefulness of frying fat?
The frying fat should be as resistant to heat and processes as possible.This criterion is met by fats which
- they contain mainly saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids,
- have the lowest share of polyunsaturated fats,
- they have been refined,
- they have a high smoking temperature – at least 180 ° C.
The most durable during frying are saturated fatty acids, then monounsaturated, while polyunsaturates are sensitive to temperature and very quickly oxidize and disintegrate.Good frying fat should contain as few polyunsaturated fatty acids, preferably less than 15%.It should consist mainly of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids.Due to the fact that the consumption of saturated fat in Poland is very high, it is better to maintain a balance for frying, choosing vegetable oils with a predominance of monounsaturated fats (such as refined olive oil).
The temperature of fat burning is also very important, the moment when it begins to disintegrate into harmful compounds, loses its nutritional value and has a negative effect on the taste of the food.This is accompanied by the release of biting smoke.Such fat should not be used any further.The higher the smoking point, the longer frying can withstand fat.It is good to know that it is best to fry on refined oils.Unrefined oils contain ingredients such assuch as dyes and flavoring substances that start to burn at high temperatures and become harmful.It should therefore be used only raw, in this way using the full nutritional value of the oil.
Here you can read: The role of fat and its properties in the diet
The temperature of frying fat
Type of fat Temperature of smoking ° C
- Butter 135
- Clarified butter 252
- Margarine 182
- Lard 192
- Extra virgin olive oil 242
- Unrefined olive oil 191
- Coconut oil refined 232
- Unrefined coconut oil 177
- Refined rice oil 250
- Unrefined rice oil 215
- Refined rapeseed oil 204
- Rape oil, unrefined 110
- Refined sunflower oil 227
- Unrefined sunflower oil 107
- Refined soybean oil 238
- Unrefined soybean oil 160
- Grape seed oil 216
- Linseed oil 107
On which fat is it best to fry?
In conclusion – the main determinant of the suitability of frying fat is the high temperature of smoking and the high content of saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids.Considering these criteria, it is best to choose clarified butter, lard, coconut oil, refined olive oil, rice oil and rapeseed oil for frying.When choosing fat for heat treatment, it is also worth taking into account the frying time and the taste of the dish.For frying scrambled eggs suitable ordinary butter (unclarified), although it has a low point of smoking – the egg protein will cut faster than the butter will overheat.Clarified butter tolerates high temperatures well, and tastes best suited to vegetables, white meats and fish.Red meat well fry in lard.