What do we know about the Glycemic Index (IG)?
Find out what is the diet based on IG. You will use this knowledge not only to fight with unnecessary kilograms, but also to take care of your health. New miracle diets are coming up all the time, but will it be possible to repeat the success of Low IG? What is it about? Read more and trust professionals!
The glycemic index concept was created over 30 years ago. At that time, a group of scientists carried out research on the impact of 62 commonly consumed products and simple sugars on the postprandial glycemic index (ie blood glucose after ingestion of a given product / food). The results of these studies have enabled the creation of a classification system for foods containing carbohydrates with different effects on the glycemic value.
The very definition of a glycemic index may seem a bit complicated. According to the FAO / WHO definition, the glycemic index (IG) is the area under the curve of the glycemic response measured for 2 hours after consuming 50g of available (“available”) carbohydrates from the food product under study and expressed in relation to the glycemic response to the same amount of carbohydrates from a standard product, a pattern (glucose or white bread) consumed by the same person.
Simply put, the glycemic index of a given product tells you how your blood glucose will change when consumed, as compared to the changes taking place with the same amount of glucose or available carbohydrates found in white bread. Here is an example of an IG of 60 means that after consuming a product containing 50g of “available” carbohydrates, the increase in blood glucose will be 40% lower compared to the increase in blood glucose after consuming 50 g glucose or 50 g of “available” carbohydrates from white bread (accepted as 100%).
The glycemic index is influenced by many factors, the degree of processing of the product, the type of cooking, content in the product of protein, fat, dietary fiber, anti-nutritive substances or organic acids. Thus, the increased content of glucose, sucrose, starch with high amylopectin content, high degree of disintegration and thermal processing of the product increase the value of IG. However, the content in the product of higher amounts of water-soluble dietary fiber, fructose or other components such as fats, proteins, organic acids and anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins) lead to a reduction in the glycemic index.
The result of consumption of products with a low glycemic index is a slow and relatively small increase in the level of glucose in the blood, and thus a small discharge of insulin. However, fast absorption of carbohydrates after a high-IG meal results in increased insulin concentration in the blood, which increases the storage of energy components, and thus the “build” of adipose tissue.
A diet rich in high-IG products increases the risk of type II diabetes and cardiovascular diseases such as ischemic heart disease.
A diet with a low glycemic index reduces glycemic and insulin response as well as improves the lipid profile in people with metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes. Such a diet may be an alternative to a low-energy diet (slimming diet), especially in children and adolescents and people with type II diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertriglyceridemia or mixed hyperlipidemia, although the results of scientific studies are not entirely clear.
Diet with a low glycemic index is characterized by a marked increase in fruit intake (especially from our latitude and citrus) and vegetables, legume seeds, selected whole grain cereal products rich in water-soluble dietary fiber (eg barley and oat products, pumpernickel, buckwheat). At the same time, in the low IG diet, the consumption of farinaceous, starchy products with low content of dietary fiber (potatoes, white rice) and foods with high levels of simple sugars (cakes, cookies, sweets and sweetened beverages) are limited.
It is worth knowing that the glycemic index of food can not be determined based on its composition (carbohydrate content and other ingredients). It must always be determined experimentally. How do you do it? The group of volunteers is given the test product, and then for two hours (at specified time intervals) draws blood and investigates glucose concentration. The calculated average values give the value of IG of a given product. Individual glycemic response to a given product can be significantly different in different people. Therefore, in order to obtain more reliable data, these results should be compared to the glycemic response after consumption of the “standard” and perform determinations in 3-4 repetitions.Posted on: October 17, 2018