We will show you how to choose the training means (part 1/2)


How to choose training means, how to create and characterize them? The article introduces the subject of training measures. The topic is important, because for every athlete, every physically active person is a daily bread.


  1. We change our reality with physical effort

Physical effort is used to change our functional reality. If we only want to lose unnecessary kilograms of body fat – a new silhouette, a better frame of mind, condition is a tangible proof of induced changes. Achieving a specific physical form, a specific result in a given sport discipline is associated with satisfaction, appreciation, reward, and social position

Changes do not occur only in our external world. In order for physical exertion to give the above-mentioned effects, our body first has to undergo a series of changes so-called. adaptation. Adapt various functions of the system to be in physical fitness ready to achieve results, change the reality. Physical effort changes our external reality and internal, systemic.


  1. Stimulus – exercise effect – adaptive effect

The adaptive process is a multitude of phenomena, changes, and mechanisms of happening in our body to meet the planned movement task. These are not occasional changes caused by a single training, but rather the sum of the multiplicity of workouts and physical efforts. Each of them makes a brick for changes in the body. Every physical effort causes an effect in the body. The problem is that the effects of the effort accumulate in the process of desired changes – those that will build physical fitness, which we actually seek for.


Every physical effort is an exercise or a complex of exercises, some organized forms of movement that are a stimulus for changes taking place in the body. In order for the physical effort not to be in vain and we find ourselves in the expected situation of physical form, skills, fitness, training stimuli must be skillfully dosed. Yes, to trigger the planned exercise effects and further adaptive effects.



  1. What are the training measures and how to use them?

Training means are just stimuli, single exercises or exercise teams. They are separated mainly due to the traffic structure and impact. To know how to use them correctly, you need to know what impact they have. And even more important is to ask yourself if they exert planned influence.


  1. How are training measures created?

The starting point for the selection of training measures is to specify the parameters of physical effort and skills that we want to achieve. Based on the characteristics of discipline or competition, the requirements imposed on the system – training measures should be formulated that are closest to the target form of movement and effort. Such measures are called special.

However, it will be a mistake to rely only on special measures. The structure of the movement of exercises or sets of special exercises will mainly burden the muscles and energy systems most involved and decisive about the result in the starting effort. Training with special measures will leave many weak links in training.

Every physical effort is to adapt many different functions of the system.

Startup functions are the leading functions. This does not mean that they can operate without a multitude of phenomena and supporting mechanisms that condition the starting effort. They form a cause-and-effect chain, the interruption or inadequate organization of which undermines the effectiveness of the starting effort.


  1. Poor links of unilateral training

Often you have heard or seen how a player, despite the high physical form due to an injury, does not achieve the desired goal. An injury can affect the player before the competition or during the start, when the implementation of the intended plan is literally at your fingertips.

This happens often because of poor preparation. The reason may have been the weakness of these muscles, which were not included in the training, because the emphasis was too much on the work of muscles having the greatest impact on the result.


  1. Dead string

Lifting the bar from the ground is a good exercise for the muscles of the sacro-lumbar region, the quadratus backbone, buttocks and quadriceps. However, it is important to develop other muscles, such as the abdomen. It is their strength that will be responsible for the creation of intra-abdominal pressure, protection of viscera, triggering an additional righting moment.

The strong astringent muscles of the shoulders will in turn keep the upright upper part of the torso. In this m.in. the way these muscles work will affect the proper technique of deadlift, will create the conditions for the exercise of muscles dominating the exercise, prevent dangerous bending of the spine in the arch.


  1. Aerobic capacity

Should the start-up effort based mainly on anaerobic changes be based only on preparations on these training measures? The aerobic capacity, too extensive, will cause that some fast-twitch fibers will take on the character of oxygen, slow-twitch fibers. This will not be conducive to the result. But what about the character of slow-twitch fibers?

Appropriate training in the field of oxygen metabolism will improve slow-twitch fibers, respiratory and circulatory systems, supply and use of oxygen. Thanks to this, the athlete, who is based in his start on anaerobic exercise, will be faster in getting ready due to faster renewal in the intervals between the intervals of effort, during moderate renewal efforts and rest.


  1. Get involved in a progressive adaptation!

Physical training is nothing but constant stimulation of muscles to work. It is a neuromuscular stimulation. It does not concern isolated muscles, it rather spreads to the muscles most involved in the work and muscles of this work. The latter fulfill a very important role. They can stabilize the bone system for the correct moments of forces developed by the muscles doing the main job. They can be antagonists, counteracting too large a range of motion in the joints.

Focusing only on the work of the muscles dominating in the starting effort causes that the more developed muscles take over some of the functions of the weaker muscles. Weaker muscles become even weaker. In a given movement, effort, exercise an incorrect pattern of neuromuscular stimulation arises. A weak link is formed.

In preventing situations leading to the appearance of weak links, the solution is a progressive adaptation, which will include necessary changes in all cells affecting the correctness and effectiveness of a given physical fitness. Including the use of not only special training means.


  1. Targeted training measures

In order to be fully prepared for the start-up effort, the progressive adaptation of the system should be taken into account in the training process. Develop system functions that play an auxiliary role in performing a starting exercise. We do this, of course, using training means, other than special, so-called targeted and versatile.

Targeted measures are closer to a special one. They shape functional mechanisms of specialized efforts. Structurally, they are similar to the requirements of the starting exercise, but they are not exactly consistent with it. For a football player, it can be a slalom shift exercise over a distance of up to 80 m. Although the player does not run during a match between poles, the nature of the slalom course reflects the way the player moves during frequent changes of direction during the match.

Another example of a training agent will be various forms of medical ball throws performed by a boxer. Although in the fight he does not throw balls, but makes similar moves with his hands as when throwing them, he moves them from himself towards the opponent. Exercise with heavy balls will allow him to develop the dynamic strength of these movements.


  1. Comprehensive training measures

The comprehensive measures develop the athlete’s movement potential, which does not have a direct impact on the shaping of specialized instructions. As the name suggests, the funds are so comprehensive that they improve the various functions of the system and prevent the weaknesses of any of them.

For a swimmer, it can be all kinds of runs, flexibility exercises on land, strength exercises on the atlas. For a volleyball player, these can be various types of skippers, terrain courses, obstacle courses, games and games. The general part of the pre-workout warm-up and complementary sports will be almost universal for all disciplines, and therefore a completely different sport discipline.

Posted on: November 13, 2018

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