Populars myths – time to bust them!
Tips circulating on the Internet often sound ridiculous, because people who make different theories have nothing to do with slimming, fitness, bodybuilding, and often even with sports. Very often it happens that “pakerzy”, who have many years of experience, give meaningless advice. Recently, a man who has problems due to fluid retention and thrombosis, someone has recommended a dietary supplement can and effective, but it improves completely other parameters, such as glycemia.
Nobody cares that such advice can even kill someone. I immediately recommended a dozen separate examinations to the man (kidneys, liver, blood, urine and heart, hormones) and a visit to a specialist. At the beginning I will describe typical tips on weight loss, which are still repeated.
Tip # 1 is “eat less and you’ll lose weight”.
Some use a formula or mysterious diet EL (eat less) = meaning less cheers. Unfortunately, this is a senseless advice. And what if a person excludes from the diet exactly those ingredients that are necessary for regeneration, maintenance of resting metabolism, maintenance of muscle mass? And what if this person had already had a fatal diet, in which there were too few essential polyunsaturated fats, vitamins, minerals or wholesome proteins?
For example, numerous studies indicate that during a diet with a negative caloric balance it is necessary to use a larger amount of proteins in the diet, so it is not enough to “eat less carbohydrates and fats”. It would be necessary to rethink the whole dietary scheme from the beginning. In the experiment of Mettler, Mitchell, and Tipton, 20 healthy, trained young athletes were examined for the amount of energy they spent in one week. In the second week of the experiment, they were fed with 15% protein and 100% energy. In the next two weeks, the diet was based on 15% or 35% protein and 60% of the energy supplied by food.
Athletes were divided into two groups
15% protein – 1 g protein per kilogram body weight, CP control group, n35% protein – 2.3 g protein per kilogram body weight, high protein group, HP.
15% protein – 1 g of protein per kilogram of body weight, CP control group,
35% protein – 2.3 g protein per kilogram body weight, high protein group, HP.
Athletes trained in the same way as before the experiment for 4 weeks.
total body mass in the low protein group decreased by 3 ± 0.4 kg, in the high protein group by 1.5 ± 0.3 kg, muscle mass (muscles) in the low protein group 1.6 ± 0.3 kg loss, in the high protein group 0.3 ± 0.3 kg . kilogram of loss.
dry body mass (muscle) in the low protein group 1.6 ± 0.3 kg loss, in the high protein group 0.3 ± 0.3 kg. kilogram of loss.
And that means that high protein supply can save up to five times more muscle tissue.
What happens when you eat too little?
Dietary restrictions always have serious hormonal effects
decreased resting metabolism, as demonstrated, for example, in studies by Davoodi et al. 3. In women weighing 95 kg on average and 168 cm in height, the use of a diet supplying 1186 ± 163 kcal resulted in a fall in resting metabolism by 7.3% after just 6 weeks. Even if these ladies almost did nothing, they should provide ~ 1700 kcal per day. The second group of women used a rotational diet (11 days of calorie restriction, 3 days of higher energy supply) and not only a decrease in resting metabolism was much lower, but additionally the body bounced much faster (ladies delivered an average of 1365 kcal for 11 days and 1971 kcal in 3 days of increased energy supply),
the thyroid work changes (eg under physiological conditions, the thyroid secretes 90 mcg T4 and 8 mcg T3). In the studies of Hulmi JJ et al., A 12% weight loss and a 35-50% reduction in body fat were obtained. As a result, ladies lost 7.5 kg of fat in 4 months. Average 1.875 kg per month. This had a high price in 5 out of 27 women, T3 levels were below the reference threshold (2.6-6 pmol / L) even before entering the reduction, and during the introduction of calorie restriction, as many as 20 out of 27 women, T3 fell below the minimum threshold. Even 3-4 months without caloric restriction were not enough to restore the functioning of the thyroid gland! There was also a decrease in TSH,
there has been a dramatic decrease in the amount of leptin (which may cause a constant feeling of hunger),
decreased T3 level resulted in a decrease in blood pressure and a slow heart rate,
there has been a decrease in the amount of testosterone and estradiol. Estradiol returned to baseline after 3-4 months after exiting the reduction, but unfortunately testosterone is not. These declines resulted in problems with the regularity of the menstrual cycle,
there was a decrease in force in leg extrusion (-0.5 ± 9.5%), bench press bench press (-3.4 ± 7.5%) and in high-speed jump (-3.4 ± 9.1%).
Okay, but does it matter if the thyroid does not work well, and the resting metabolism has fallen sharply?
The proportions of energy expenditure look like this
resting metabolism – about 60-70% of the daily expenditure; n physical effort or exercise – from about 15% of the daily expense in people leading a sedentary lifestyle up to 40% in people with a very active lifestyle; ntermogenesis – about 10% of daily energy expenditure.
resting metabolism – about 60-70% of the daily expenditure;
physical exercise or exercise – from about 15% of the daily expense in people leading a sedentary lifestyle up to 40% in people who have a very active lifestyle;
food thermogenesis – about 10% of the daily energy expenditure.
And that means that by applying too restrictive diet you hit 60-70% of the energy you spend every day. But that’s not all! After minimally increasing the supply of calories, the ladies described in the experiment, 3 who did not use such a drastic diet, maintained virtually all effects! After a period of one month after the end of the restriction, the calorie rotating group (11 x days x 1365 kcal and 3 days x 1971 kcal) still had 4.78 kg of fat less. For comparison, the group of chronic caloric deficit maintained much less effects. There was only 1.98 kg of fat less (and in the conditions of supplying more energy in the rotating group!). And that means that after a month, ladies who were so sluggish when delivering 1186 ± 163 kcal per day lost 50% of the effects. We know from other studies that hypothyroidism, low estrogen levels, low carbohydrate levels in the diet and calorie restriction strongly affect the level of IGF-1, one of the most important growth factors in the human system. 5 Some scientists suggest that in women the minimum healthy level of body fat is 12-14% (Meyer et al. 2013). Researchers speculate that reduced body fat levels affect HPTA, ovulation and menstruation. In people trained and having more muscle mass, every restrictive diet brings with it a decrease in the amount of muscle tissue, the basic “furnace” driving the BMR. And that means that you have less carbohydrates and fats oxidized.
And that means that after a month, ladies who were so sluggish when delivering 1186 ± 163 kcal per day lost 50% of the effects.
Sources of energy at rest
Fats are oxidized and give about 56 ± 11% energy (0.08 ± 0.02 g per minute), from carbohydrates comes 44 ± 11% energy (0.15 ± 0.04 g per minute).
Tip No. 2 is “train more and you’ll lose weight”
Not necessarily. There are hundreds of studies that say that very frequent, shorter and intense, or less frequent, but long-lasting training does not have to bring the expected results. 6-10 Meta-analyzes 10 show, for example, that the training itself (e.g., aerobic) brought a reduction of 1.95 kg on average. Meanwhile, people who simultaneously coached and used a proper diet lost 6.81 kg in the same period (interventions lasted from 2 to 12 months).
The same principle applies to fat loss
training alone allowed you to lose an average of 1.49 kg of fat, ntraining + diet allowed you to drop 8.32 kg of fat (more than 4.5 times better result!).
Just running without changes in the diet is, according to scientific research, not very effective for reducing body fat and brings up to 46% worse results in the year of training. 12 Rasmus Oestergaard Nielsen et al. Was conducted on 558 novice runners. People running an average of more than 5 km per week lost 5.58 kg of body fat in one year if they added diet to exercise. People who just ran and eaten the same as before, got rid of 3.55 kg less, i.e. the loss was only 3.81 kg of fat.
In addition, each training intervention has its limits and very often increasing the intensity, volume or both of these parameters simultaneously leads to health problems (eg increased incidence of injuries). In studies by Nielsen RO et al. 13 it was proved that overcoming 3 km per week in the initial period is relatively safe. But people with BMI> 30 running 3-6 km per week had an average of 14.3% more injuries, and above 6 km per week an average of 16.2% more compared to the group running 3 km.
Tip # 3 is “eat more protein, lose weight”.
Only the protein should not be considered as a separate macronutrient of the diet without considering the whole. So what if you add a few portions of protein to a diet based on sausages, kebabs and pizzas? So what if you start to massively supplement amino acids, if the whole feeding scheme is wrong? High intake of protein promotes the reduction of body fat and building muscle mass, but does not fix errors in the diet.
Tip No. 4 is “do aerobics, they slim down”.
Unfortunately. There are hundreds of studies that show that regardless of what training you do strength, aerobic, interval, body-pump 15 or crossfit, it is ineffective if you do not make significant changes in your diet. 6-10
Iron rules for metabolism
- The body strives for homeostasis. That’s why hunger diets usually have the opposite effect than people would like. The more restrictive the diet, the greater mood swings, glucose disorders, worse mood or health complications (sometimes reflecting over many months). But above all, severe caloric restriction means slowed down metabolism and poor oxidation of subcutaneous, visceral and intramuscular fats.
- The body strives for homeostasis. That’s why hunger diets usually have the opposite effect than people would like.
- The body has one goal. Apart from beginners and people on pharmacological support, it is extremely difficult to build muscle mass while getting rid of adipose tissue. Generally, building muscle tissue is extremely expensive, therefore, in the presence of inactivity, such a rapid drop in the amount of IIx and IIA fibers is noted (much less is the loss of type I fibers). The body is very reluctant to consume more fat, especially when you “flood it” with carbohydrates (insulin release).
- The body has one goal. Apart from beginners and people on pharmacological support, it is extremely difficult to build muscle mass while getting rid of adipose tissue.
- The organism aims to optimize, so with the progress of time you spend less and less energy shifting weights (10 tons for a trained weightlifter is 570 kcal), jumping, swimming or riding a bike. Some people have greater energy expenditure than others by greater muscle mass, higher activity of T4-> T3 conversions, higher androgen concentrations, IGF-1, the use of beta-mimetics, ephedrine or growth hormone.
- The organism aims to optimize, so with the progress of time you spend less and less energy by shifting weights
- Unfortunately, people are not equal in terms of predisposition to build muscle mass and get rid of body fat. If you took into account people with 20-30 years of experience in the gym, it would turn out that some of them react to completely absurd ranges of repetitions, volume or unusual exercises. It is very rare that a particular way of training fits everyone.
- Unfortunately, people are not equal in terms of predisposition to build muscle mass and get rid of body fat.
- Changes occurring with age significantly impede building muscle mass and getting rid of adipose tissue (increased aromatization, decrease in the amount of androgens, GH, IGF-1, thyroid disorders, glycemic disorders, etc.).
- Changes occurring with age significantly impede building muscle mass and getting rid of adipose tissue
- Insulin can be an ally or enemy. For example, in the study of Lin F. Chang et al. 16, before receiving a carbohydrate-rich meal (a group of “high carbohydrates and low fat” received 21 g fat and 158 g carbohydrates). The oxidation of WKT was high, the level of FFA in plasma was 0.68 ± 0.02 mmol / L, after 120 minutes the concentration of WKT decreased to ~ 0.2 mmol / L (suppression of free fatty acids lasted 4 hours!). Similarly with other hormones.
- Insulin can be an ally or enemy.
To sum up, do not let the limitations that you induce yourself develop on your way to getting rid of fat.Posted on: August 2, 2018